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Ear Training - A Direct and Logical Path
by John Mark Piper

When I first began examining ear training, I remember thinking of it as being the most abstract aspect of music. At the same time it is one of the most important. It is at the core of the most complex as well as the simplest levels of musicality. Hearing, identifying and realizing sound determines ones usable musical vocabulary thus acting as a type of governor for progress.

Example: A student attempting to obtain the use of the ‘altered dominant’ chord scale in their improvisations, practices the scale and masters it. He/she knows the notes in every key but when the D flat 7 (alt) appears in a progression, the music ‘takes a break’. Why? Because their is so much to hear in the chord that it becomes a struggle to carry on. Intellectually, the student knows the scale, but the actual sound each note produces remains a mystery until after randomly chosen notes are played. This hunt and peck approach to find music can go on for a very long time in the students growth. After hundreds of mystery notes have been played, a few of the notes of the chord begin to reveal their personalities or character and the student begins to find musical expressions which utilize these personalities. As more personalities become familiar, the vocabulary grows and the student advances.

There are several ways to obtain the ability to recognize and identify pitches. Those of us who do not have perfect pitch must choose a measuring devise or technique. One popular method is to divide everything into intervals and then relate intervals to familiar melodies (perfect fourth=Hear Comes the Bride, major sixth=NBC door bell etc.) This is a horizontal approach which identifies intervals but I don’t feel it is the most direct path to having spontaneous knowledge of sound as it relates to a musical piece. It also doesn’t increase the musical vocabulary harmonically when attempting to capture an expression or idea. The mental circuitry involved, fragments the melody and interjects secondary melodies between the notes of the primary melody in order to make identification of intervals. Then you must calculate the intervallic math in order to actually identify the notes in question.

An improviser is spontaneously creating a melody which hopefully originates somewhere within the mind and spirit of the improviser. The next task is to get this melody out to the instrument within the pre-designed context of the music (be it chord progression, and/or meter etc.) The improviser’s instrument is in effect, a medium which connects the boundless spiritual world of the improviser to the ever present boundary oriented world of the physical - REALITY! With this in mind, the improviser must speak two languages. Always increasing the vocabulary of both in order to bridge the two worlds and grow. Since the improviser’s created melody does originate with the improviser, the actual line is already known. It becomes a mystery when the attempt is made to put it out for others to hear because the vertical identity of the tones is not yet known. Therefore, it is more beneficial for the improviser to concentrate on the vertical identification of tones (pitch, as it relates to the key or tonal center of the moment) rather than intervallic or horizontal identification.

There are a number of phases to the process. The first goal is to have an identifying solfeggio syllable automatically attached to tones you hear or conceive of in relation to a key. In other words, after you understand the process and conquer it, the notes will tell you their identity automatically.

The Process Begins

Diatonic major

* It is assumed that the sound of the major scale is already more than familiar before beginning this process.

At the keyboard, play and sing the following to establish the key: do re me fa sol la ti do do ti la sol fa mi re do
Now play this: ti

The personality of ti, or the tonal function of that note wants to move very strongly to do. Did the note reveal its personality to you? If so, you have met the seventh degree of the major scale, ‘ti’. All the notes have a personality and all you have to do is recognize them. The following exercises are designed to introduce them. They are simple and do not require an ear training partner or a lot of time to practice them. Most of them, like ‘ti’, you may already know. You just haven’t been formally introduced.

This approach is the reverse of what you might be use to. Instead of beginning at ‘do’ and singing to the note in question; this method starts at the note to be identified and takes you back to ‘do’ using the the shortest stepwise diatonic path. This process very quickly reveals the personalities or tonal functions and eventually you will not need to refer to the pathway.

Example: Establish the key of C major in your ear. At the keyboard play any ‘white’ note. Now play and sing your way back to ‘C’ using the shortest stepwise path diatonic to ‘C’ major. If the note you played was "A", your path will be La, Ti, Do. If the note was ‘F’, the shortest diatonic path is Fa, Mi, Re, Do. Always sing with syllables. After a while, these paths will become very recognizable songs or poems. You’ll know what is coming up before you play it. That is the first progression of this process.


The Pathways

Establish the key between each of the pathways or whenever necessary.

do re mi fa sol la ti do sol mi do

Play and sing the following pathways until they become automatic poems. Allow the first note to sustain long enough to settle in your ear (two or three seconds), then resolve it to Do using the shortest diatonic path. After they become familiar, play and sing them in random order for several minutes each day.

Continue this process using random starting notes diatonic to C major. Allow the keyboard to be your aural as well as visual guide through the pathways. Make sure you sing everything in tune. Do not try to confuse or trick yourself. Games and challenges will come later.

do

re do

mi re do

fa mi re do

sol la ti do

la ti do

ti do


An excellent way to practice is to record ten to twenty minutes of playing the pathways on tape in random order. On the recording, play the first note and hold it for a few seconds. Then resolve it to ‘do’ using the shortest path. When you listen back, try to identify the held note before the pathway is played back to ‘do’. As the pathways become strong, you will begin to hear the identity of the held note without the pathway being played. Your recognition of personalities will strengthen, and when a diatonic note is played, it will also whisper it’s syllable. At this time, the diatonic majors’ personalities are revealed and you should be able to immediately identify them by solfeggio syllable.

Game One

Around the World:

Objective:
1. To know and recognize the personalities, syllables and note identifications in all keys.
2. Quicken the ability to establish and re-establish tonal centers as the music modulates through various keys.

How to play the game: Sing the previously learned pathways through all keys following the modulation formulas given below. Establish the key in your ear as often as necessary by singing the full major scale between each modulation.

The Pathways for the major scale:

do

re do

mi re do

fa mi re do

sol la ti do

la ti do

ti do


Modulation formula:

Half step up and down

Whole step up and down

Minor third up and down

Major third up and down

Perfect fourth

Augmented fourth (use your imagination)

Perfect fifth


Game Two

What’s My Line?

Objective:
1. To strengthen the recognition of tonal personalities as they take on changing characters or harmonic functions.
2. To preconceive the line before the key center is established thus instigating and encouraging hearing and thinking ahead.

This game is excellent for giving the improviser control to lead the music through the changes as opposed to following the changes.


How to play:
1. Choose a note to work with. The first time you play the note, it is Do. The second time you play the same note, it is Re, the third time it is Mi, and so on. Each time, sing the major diatonic pathway back to Do. Go slow and make sure you hear each modulation and tonal center before you continue. Cheat when necessary.


Game Three

Sybil

Objective: 1. To hear and identify multiple personalities.

How to play: At the keyboard, establish the key of C major. Close your eyes and play two white notes at random anywhere on the keyboard. Without looking, play and sing the pathways (one at a time) back to Do.(facing away from the piano, or crossing your hands helps to disorient you and make you hear the answers).

II. The Process Continues

pathways for non-diatonic notes

The non-diatonic notes can just as easily be identified in the same way as the diatonic notes.

However, the recognition of diatonic personalities must first be very strong. I recommend adding the non-diatonic notes in the following order and one at a time. Don’t add the second non-diatonic note until the first is clear. Add the third after the first two are clear and so on.

The Non-diatonic Pathways

fe(+4) sol la ti do

Say(-5) fa mi re do

ra(-2) do

di (#1) re do

si (#5) la ti do

lay (-6) sol la ti do

me(may,-3) re do

ri(#2) mi re do

li (#6) ti do

te(tay) la ti do


Use the same games to strengthen the non-diatonics as with the diatonics. Creating your own exercises and uses for this concept will undoubtedly help in the growing process.

Applying the "cross hairs"(+) to music

Now we can combine horizontal and vertical concepts to learning a piece of music.

When we hear a melody line, we hear it as it relates to the notes before and after it. This causes it to be a horizontal line. As an improviser, we can use harmonic function as a way of identifying the location of the melodic components or individual notes of a melody.

* example: The melody of Days of Wine and Roses begins on the note C in the key of F. It then moves vertically up a major sixth to A. Our first relationship with the pattern is horizontal or linear. In order to identify the notes we must build from one to the next using and calculating intervallic space based off of our first note which we identify by harmonic function. The "cross hairs" method of using the Pathways creates the ability to recognize the harmonic function in tandem with the linear expression.

Take a song like Days of Wing and Roses. Sing the first note with harmonic accompaniment and hold it until you hear it vertically or in relation to its harmonic function. Sing that note to Do using the shortest diatonic pathway (sol la ti do). Then sing the first note to the second note and sing the second note to Do using the pathway. Continue this until you have gone through all of the individual notes of the song. You will find that the amount of information you are adding to your playing is vast and increases your usable musical vocabulary for improvising very quickly.

THE BLUES

After you feel comfortable that you are hearing and identifying the personalities and pathways individually, it is beneficial for an improviser to apply the concept to various song forms and improvisational styles. One of those forms, the twelve bar blues is a style that is the basics of jazz improvisation.

Start by singing and playing a major scale using solfeggio syllables to establish the key you’ve chosen to work. Then play the chords to the simple blues form while singing the roots of the chords.

ex. 1.

do fa do do fa fi do la

//: I 7 / IV 7 / I 7 / I 7 / IV 7 / #IV DIM 7 / I 7 / VI 7 /

re sol do la re sol

/ II-7 / V 7 / I 7 VI-7 / II-7 V7 ://

After you have the sound of the blues pattern well established in your head, you can begin learning the personalities of the each of the twelve notes when accompanied by the blues.

You will now play the blues pattern twelve times. Each time sing a different note over the entire form and sing the pathway back to DO using solfeggio syllables before playing the next chord.

ex. 2: do

Sing do over each chord.

//: I 7 / IV 7 / I 7 / I 7 / IV 7 / #IV DIM 7 / I 7 II 7 /

/ III-7 VI 7 / II 7 / V7 / I 7 VI-7 / II-7 V7 ://


ex. 3: re

Sing the pathway, re do over each chord. Note: Do does not change with each chord. If you are playing F Blues, F will always be do and G will always be re.

//: I 7 / IV 7 / I 7 / I 7 / IV 7 / #IV DIM 7 / I 7 II 7 /

/ III-7 VI 7 / II 7 / V7 / I 7 VI-7 / II-7 V7 ://


ex. 4: mi

Sing the pathway, mi re do over each chord. When the note doesn’t fit "properly" in the chord, I recommend doing it anyway. It may become a sound or expression you can learn to use.

//: I 7 / IV 7 / I 7 / I 7 / IV 7 / #IV DIM 7 / I 7 II 7 /

/ III-7 VI 7 / II 7 / V7 / I 7 VI-7 / II-7 V7 ://

Continue this until you have covered all notes diatonic to the major scale. Then add the non-diatonic notes.


ex. 5: ra

Sing the pathway, ra do over each chord.

//: I 7 / IV 7 / I 7 / I 7 / IV 7 / #IV DIM 7 / I 7 II 7 /

/ III-7 VI 7 / II 7 / V7 / I 7 VI-7 / II-7 V7 ://


ex. 6: me (may)

sing the pathway me(may) re do over each chord

//: I 7 / IV 7 / I 7 / I 7 / IV 7 / #IV DIM 7 / I 7 II- 7 /

/ III-7 VI 7 / II 7 / V7 / I 7 VI-7 / II-7 V7 ://

Complete the rest of the non-diatonic notes and then follow the same procedure through all twelve keys. Remember that in addition to training your ear, you are training your mind to think as you play and get around the "musical maze". Don’t try to perfect each one. Keep moving and don’t stop and get hung up on one key. As you practice thinking, they will all eventually come.

Note: An excellent way to practice these exercises is to choose a key to practice in before you go to the instrument, or pick a key to work with by ear. Before going to the instrument, sing a few choruses of the blues and then go to the keyboard and figure out what key you are in. That will be the key of the moment for you to work with.


SIMPLE SUBSTITUTION, INTERPOLATIONS AND PASSING CHORDS

The next step in the blues is to get freedom from within the form by hearing the basic substitution for the chords. The most basic form of the blues is the following:

//: I 7 / I 7 / I 7 / I 7 / IV 7 / IV7 / I 7 / I 7 /

/ V 7 / V 7 / I 7 / I 7 ://


To add motion to the progression, the following is very common. Notice the basic form stays the same. Any motion you add to arrive at the one chord on bar one, the four chord or facsimile thereof at measure five, the five chord or facsimile thereof at measure nine, should be experimented with.

//: I 7 / IV 7 / I 7 / I 7 / IV 7 / #IV DIM 7 / I 7 II- 7 /

/ III-7 VI 7 / II 7 / V7 / I 7 VI-7 / II-7 V7 ://

//: I 7 / IV 7 / I 7 / I 7 / IV 7 / #IV DIM 7 / I 7 II- 7 /

/ III-7 VI 7 / II 7 / V7 / I 7 VI-7 / II-7 V7 ://

Sample variations of the first five bars of the blues:

//: I 7 / IV 7 / I 7 / V-7 I 7 / IV 7 / etc

NOTE: The [ V-7 I 7 ] is [ II-7 V7 ]of the IV 7 chord.

Play the chords and sing the root motion of the following sample variations using solfeggio syllables. Then create your own variations, always singing the root motion.

//: I 7 / IV 7 #IV dim 7 / I 7 / V-7 I 7 / IV 7 / etc

//: I 7 / IV 7 #IV dim 7 / I 7 II 7 / V-7 #IV 7 / IV 7 / etc

//: I 7 / IV 7 #IV dim 7 / I 7 / V-7 I 7 / IV 7 / etc

//: I 7 #IV dim 7 / IV 7 bII 7 / I 7 V-7 / I 7 #IV dim 7 / IV 7 / etc


//: I 7 #IV dim 7 / IV 7 bII 7 / I 7 V-7 / I 7 #IV dim 7 / IV 7 / etc

//: I 7 VI-7 / II-7 V7 / I 7 II7 / V-7 I7 / IV 7 / etc.

//: I 7 VI7 / II-7 bII7 / I 7 II7 / V-7 I 7 / IV 7 / etc

//: I 7 bIII7 / II-7 V7 / I 7 bVI 7 / V-7 I 7 / IV 7 / etc


Use the same method to expand the rest of the blues progression. The possible variations are numerous. The objective in this exercise is to open the ears as you exercise the mind.

NOTE: No upper structures of the chords are indicated. They should be explored openly and experimented with.

CONNECTING THE DOTS

The next objective is to hear the individual components (chord tones) of each of the chord progressions we have created so that they become available for use in our improvised musical expressions. To accomplish this, sing each of the chord tones of each progression back to do using the shortest momentary diatonic path. In the blues, relate all solfeggio syllables to the original key. If you are working on thirds of chords and you are presently playing F blues, you will sing all pathways back to F keeping the pathway within the harmonic context of the present chord.


example 1.

Roots of Chords.

(may)

do / fa me re do / do / sol la te do, do / fa mi re do/

I 7 / IV 7 / I 7 / V-7 I 7 / IV 7 /

/ fi fa mi re do / do re do / mi re do la ti do / re do / sol la ti do / do la ti do/

/#IV dim 7 / I 7 II-7 / III-7 VI 7 / II 7 / V 7 / I 7 VI -7 /

/re do ra do//

/II-7 bII 7 //


example 2.

second degree or ninth of the chord

re do / sol la ti do / re do / la te do re do / sol la ti do /

I 7 / IV 7 / I 7 / V-7 I 7 / IV 7 /

/si la ti do / re do mi re do/ fi sol la ti do ti do / mi re do / la ti do /

/#IV dim 7 / I 7 II-7 / III-7 VI 7 / II 7 / V 7 /


/ mi re do ti do / mi re do me ra do //

/ I 7 VI -7 / II-7 bII 7 //

Follow this process through all degrees of the chromatic scale. Keep moving and don’t dwell on one particular key. Your objective is not to master that which can not be mastered. You are simply adding to your musical vocabulary by stretching your hearing and at the same time, maintaining consistent pathways through the musical maze which help the mind and ears to work together.


Modulations: Scales and Exercises

Learn to sing the following scales up and down accurately with and without playing.

1. do re mi fa sol la ti do

2. do re me fa sol la ti do

3. do re mi fa sol la te do

4. do re me fa sol la te do

5. do re me fa sol lay ti do

6. do re me fa sol lay te do

7. do ra mi fa sol la ti do

8. do ri mi fa sol la ti do

9. do ra mi fa sol la te do

10. do ra ri mi fa sol la ti do

11. do ra ri mi fa sol la te do

12. do ra ri mi fa sol le te do

13. do re mi fi sol la ti do

14. do re me fi sol la ti do

15. do ra mi fi sol la ti do

16. do ra ri mi fi sol la ti do

17. do ra ri mi fi sol la te do

18. do ra ri mi fi sol lay ti do

19. do ra ri mi fi sol lay te do

20. do ra ri mi say lay te do

21. do re mi say lay te do

22. do ra me fa say lay te do

23. do ra me fa sol lay te do

The next step is to learn to identify modulations from any point or personality to any point or key. The following process will begin to open up and untangle the maze.

1. Play a note chosen at random and sing the pathway and major scale up and back using that note as Do.

2. Play a note chosen at random and sing the pathway and major scale up and back using that note as re.

3. Play a note chosen at random and sing the pathway and major scale up and back using that note as mi.

4. Play a note chosen at random and sing the pathway and major scale up and back using that note as fa.

After you have completed all diatonic degrees in all major keys, begin again using the non-diatonic degrees.

1. Play a note chosen at random and sing the pathway and major scale up and back using that note as ra. Cover all keys.

2. Play a note chosen at random and sing the pathway and major scale up and back using that note as me.Cover all keys.

3. Play a note chosen at random and sing the pathway and scale up and back using that note as fi. Cover all keys.

4. Play a note chosen at random and sing the pathway and major scale up and back using that note as le. Cover all keys.

5. Play a note chosen at random and sing the pathway and major scale up and back using that note as te. Cover all keys.


FA - TI, TI - FA, FI - DO, DO - FI, WHO’S WHO?

Most modulations are accomplished with the use of a tri-tone or augmented fourth interval resolving to the root and major or minor third of the key and root motion either down a perfect fifth or down a half step.

To sort out and organize the sound to our musical ears for identification, practice the following exercises.

Modulating down a perfect fourth:

When Do becomes Fa, the modulatory root motion is down a perfect fifth. This is the most common modulation.

STEP ONE:

1. Play and sing a major scale to establish the key center.

2. Play a tri-tone built off of the root ( Do and Fi ) while singing do.

3. Make the modulatory transition in your head and change the syllable from do to fa.

4. Sing the pathway ( fa mi re do ) to the new key and sing and play the scale of the new key.

Repeat this procedure through all keys.


STEP TWO:

1. Play and sing a major scale to establish the key center.

2. Play a tri-tone built off of the root ( Do and Fi ) while singing fi.

3. Make the modulatory transition in your head and change the syllable from fi to ti.

4. Sing the pathway ( ti do ) to the new key and sing and play the scale of the new key.

Repeat this procedure through all keys.

STEP THREE:

1. Play and sing a major scale to establish the key center.

2. Play a tri-tone built off of the root ( Do and Fi ) while singing re.

3. Make the modulatory transition in your head and change the syllable from re to sol.

4. Sing the pathway ( sol la ti do ) to the new key and sing and play the scale of the new key.

Repeat this procedure through all keys.


Modulating down a half step:

STEP ONE:

1. Play and sing a major scale to establish the key center.

2. Play a tri-tone built off of the root ( Do and Fi ) while singing do.

3. Make the modulatory transition in your head and change the syllable from do to ti.

4. Sing the pathway ( ti do ) to the new key and sing and play the scale of the new key.

Repeat this procedure through all keys.

STEP TWO:

1. Play and sing a major scale to establish the key center.

2. Play a tri-tone built off of the root ( Do and Fi ) while singing fi.

3. Make the modulatory transition in your head and change the syllable from fi to fa.

4. Sing the pathway ( fa mi re do ) to the new key and sing and play the scale of the new key.

Repeat this procedure through all keys.

STEP THREE:

1. Play and sing a major scale to establish the key center.

2. Play a tri-tone built off of the root ( Do and Fi ) while singing re.

3. Make the modulatory transition in your head and change the syllable from re to ra.

4. Sing the pathway ( ra do ) to the new key and sing and play the scale of the new key.

Repeat this procedure through all keys.

Modulating down a perfect fifth:

STEP ONE:

1. Play and sing a major scale to establish the key center.

2. Play a tri-tone built off of the third degree of the scale ( mi and te ) while singing mi.

3. Make the modulatory transition in your head and change the syllable from mi to ti.

4. Sing the pathway ( ti do ) to the new key and sing and play the scale of the new key.

Repeat this procedure through all keys.

STEP TWO:

1. Play and sing a major scale to establish the key center.

2. Play a tri-tone built off of the third ( mi and te ) while singing te.

3. Make the modulatory transition in your head and change the syllable from te to fa.

4. Sing the pathway ( fa mi re do ) to the new key and sing and play the scale of the new key.

Repeat this procedure through all keys.

STEP THREE:

1. Play and sing a major scale to establish the key center.

2. Play a tri-tone built off of the third ( mi and te ) while singing do.

3. Make the modulatory transition in your head and change the syllable from do to sol.

4. Sing the pathway ( sol la ti do ) to the new key and sing and play the scale of the new key.

Repeat this procedure through all keys.


Modulating down a half step:

STEP ONE:

1. Play and sing a major scale to establish the key center.

2. Play a tri-tone built off of the third degree of the scale ( mi and te ) while singing mi.

3. Make the modulatory transition in your head and change the syllable from mi to fa.

4. Sing the pathway ( fa mi re do ) to the new key and sing and play the scale of the new key.

Repeat this procedure through all keys.

STEP TWO:

1. Play and sing a major scale to establish the key center.

2. Play a tri-tone built off of the third ( mi and te ) while singing te.

3. Make the modulatory transition in your head and change the syllable from te to ti.

4. Sing the pathway ( ti do ) to the new key and sing and play the scale of the new key.

Repeat this procedure through all keys.


STEP THREE:

1. Play and sing a major scale to establish the key center.

2. Play a tri-tone built off of the third ( mi and te ) while singing do.

3. Make the modulatory transition in your head and change the syllable from do to ra.

4. Sing the pathway ( ra do ) to the new key and sing and play the scale of the new key.

Repeat this procedure through all keys.

Modulating up a major second:

STEP ONE:

1. Play and sing a major scale to establish the key center.

2. Play a tri-tone built off of the fifth degree of the scale ( sol and ra ) while singing sol.

3. Make the modulatory transition in your head and change the syllable from sol to fa.

4. Sing the pathway ( fa mi re do ) to the new key and sing and play the scale of the new key.

Repeat this procedure through all keys.

STEP TWO:

1. Play and sing a major scale to establish the key center.

2. Play a tri-tone built off of the fifth ( sol and ra ) while singing ra.

3. Make the modulatory transition in your head and change the syllable from ra to ti.

4. Sing the pathway ( ti do ) to the new key and sing and play the scale of the new key.

Repeat this procedure through all keys.

STEP THREE:

1. Play and sing a major scale to establish the key center.

2. Play a tri-tone built off of the fifth ( sol and ra) while singing la.

3. Make the modulatory transition in your head and change the syllable from la to sol.

4. Sing the pathway ( sol la ti do ) to the new key and sing and play the scale of the new key.

Repeat this procedure through all keys.


Modulating down a major third:

STEP ONE:

1. Play and sing a major scale to establish the key center.

2. Play a tri-tone built off of the fifth degree of the scale ( sol and ra ) while singing sol.

3. Make the modulatory transition in your head and change the syllable from sol to ti.

4. Sing the pathway ( ti do ) to the new key and sing and play the scale of the new key.

Repeat this procedure through all keys.

STEP TWO:

1. Play and sing a major scale to establish the key center.

2. Play a tri-tone built off of the fifth ( sol and ra ) while singing ra.

3. Make the modulatory transition in your head and change the syllable from ra to fa.

4. Sing the pathway ( fa mi re do ) to the new key and sing and play the scale of the new key.

Repeat this procedure through all keys.

STEP THREE:

1. Play and sing a major scale to establish the key center.

2. Play a tri-tone built off of the fifth ( sol and ra) while singing la.

3. Make the modulatory transition in your head and change the syllable from la to ra.

4. Sing the pathway ( ra do ) to the new key and sing and play the scale of the new key.

Repeat this procedure through all keys.


Modulating down an augmented fourth:

STEP ONE:

1. Play and sing a major scale to establish the key center.

2. Play a tri-tone built off of the seventh degree of the scale ( fa ti) while singing ti.

3. Make the modulatory transition in your head and change the syllable from ti to mi.

4. Sing the pathway ( mi re do ) to the new key and sing and play the scale of the new key.

Repeat this procedure through all keys.

STEP TWO:

1. Play and sing a major scale to establish the key center.

2. Play a tri-tone built off of the seventh degree of the scale ( fa ti ) while singing fa.

3. Make the modulatory transition in your head and change the syllable from fa to ti.

4. Sing the pathway ( ti do ) to the new key and sing and play the scale of the new key.

Repeat this procedure through all keys.


STEP THREE:

1. Play and sing a major scale to establish the key center.

2. Play a tri-tone built off of the seventh degree of the scale ( fa ti) while singing sol.

3. Make the modulatory transition in your head and change the syllable from sol to ra.

4. Sing the pathway ( ra do ) to the new key and sing and play the scale of the new key.

Repeat this procedure through all keys.

You can apply this same formula to minor keys as well.

Rhythm Changes

// I maj7 VI-7 / II-7 V 7 / III- 7 bIII 7 / II-7 bII 7 / I maj7 I 7 /

/ IV maj7 IV-7 / III-7 VI-7 / II-7 V7 :// III 7 / III 7 /

/ VI 7 / VI 7 / II 7 / II 7 / V 7 /

/ V7 // I maj7 VI-7 / II-7 V 7 / I maj7 VI-7 / II-7 V 7 /

/ I maj7 I 7 / IV maj7 VII 7 / III-7 VI-7 / II-7 V7 //


Practice the above progression in all keys, using the same harmonic studies as with the blues in chapter two. Work in substitution chords and "two-five" cadences.